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02/09/2015

Станислав Лем - Эдем. (1958)



   Одно из самых ярких произведений мэтра фантастики, входящее в условную трилогию «Солярис» - «Эдем» - «Непобедимый». Станислав Лем создал очень яркий мир, наполнив его массой технических подробностей, и населив существами совсем не похожими на человека. Тем не менее этот мир – всего лишь оболочка для исследования проблем, свойственных, прежде всего, для мира человеческого. Роман многогранен и начинен множеством подтекстов, напоминая по своей смысловой структуре слоеный пирог. Фантастическая робинзонада перемешана в нем с боевиком, а философская притча переплетена с социальной драмой. Сам же сюжет идет по нарастающей. Сначала авария корабля заставляет экипаж приземлиться на неизвестной планете, которая при удаленном наблюдении представляет из себя «исключительный блеск. Другие планеты не такие прозрачно-чистые. Земля так просто голубая». Затем люди начинают исследовать ее поверхность, а находя подтверждения наличия жизни на планете, не могут расшифровать назначение и смысл найденного. Потом появляются аборигены (двутелы), и осуществляется контакт, который до самого финала неизвестно чем закончится – рождением нового союза или трагедией…

   Казалось бы, фантастический мир, созданный Лемом, едва ли может иметь что-то общее с землянами, но «Эдем» - это еще и социальная фантастика, и прибегая к ее языку, Лем рисует одно из возможных будущих человечества. Общество Эдема, с одной стороны, победило все возможные тирании, с другой же стороны, угодило в довольно страшную ловушку диктатуры информации, а основным законом социальной эволюции на планете стал лозунг «кто владеет информацией-тот правит миром». Итогом стала деградация. Правительство практически неуязвимо, так как отрицает сам факт своего существования, а население представляет из себя добровольных тюремных заключенных, охраняющих самих себя. Мир, который обрисовал Лем, иронично назвав его Эдемом - по сути, мир-тюрьма, из которой никто не хочет выходить, свято веря, что другой жизни просто быть не может. Недаром в финальной фразе романа как бы сплелись воедино и ирония, и горечь, и мысль о том, что можно жить и так: «Какая чистая, — сказал Координатор. — Но... знаешь... По теории вероятности следует, что бывают ещё прекраснее».

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